Mushrooms

Mushrooms have been eaten in Europe, Russia, China and Japan for thousands of years.

There are over 250 edible mushroom varieties throughout the world. Only a few are commercially available in New Zealand.

Varieties

Button mushrooms

These are mushrooms that are harvested when still small and unopened. Once the mushrooms open to a stage where the gills are visible they are referred to as cups. White button mushrooms are the most commonly consumed mushrooms in New Zealand.

p mushrooms swissbrownsSwiss browns (brown buttons, gourmet browns)

These have a darker brown top than button or cap mushrooms, but similar looking gills. They are generally harvested when 3-5 cm in diameter. Swiss browns have a rich, nutty flavour and are used when a stronger flavour is required.

p mushrooms shiitakeShiitake mushrooms

These have a traditional mushroom shape with a dark brown cap, often with small speckles around the rim. Shiitake mushrooms have a distinctive fresh earthy flavour and aroma and are widely used in Asian cooking. When cooked, the shiitake mushrooms retain their shape, have a smooth texture and do not discolour. Shiitake mushrooms are versatile and may be used raw or in all cooking where flavour infusion takes place.

p mushrooms portabellosPortabellos (brown flats, flats)

These are Swiss brown mushrooms that have been allowed to grow larger. They are usually harvested when 8-10 cm in diameter, with well formed gills. They have a very rich and intense flavour, and as they are flat they are perfect for stuffing.

What to look for

With all mushrooms, the fresher the better. Look for mushrooms with good colour and avoid any which are damaged, bruised or with signs of deterioration. Where appropriate, gills should be fresh and upright.

Availability

All year.

Store

Remove from plastic packaging and refrigerate in a paper bag. Mushrooms continue to grow after harvesting and they will respire or ‘sweat’ in plastic bags. Brown paper bags will absorb moisture and keep mushrooms fresher.

How to prepare

Cultivated mushrooms don't need peeling – just wipe both the cap and stalk with a paper towel. Do not wash. Field mushrooms sometimes need peeling.

Ways to eat

Mushrooms are very versatile and will add flavour to many dishes. They can be used with meat, in soups, sauces, braises, stews, stir fries, omelettes, pies, salads and on pizzas. They can be microwaved, barbecued, stir fried, baked, grilled, fried or poached. Serve them raw with a dip or in salads.

Cooking Methods

Button: bake, grill, stir fry.
Cups: bake, grill, stir fry, stuff.
Portobello: bake, braise, grill, roast, stir fry, stuff.

Nutrition

MUSHROOMS
Raw
Nutrition Information
Serving size: 1 cup sliced 68g
  Average
Quantity
per serving 
% Daily
intake per
serve 
Average
Quantity
per 100g 
 
Energy (kJ/Cal) 48/11 0.6%  70/17  
Protein (g) 1.6 3% 2.3  
Fat, total (g) 0.1 0.2% 0.2  
 - saturated (g) trace 0% trace  
Carbohydrate (g) 0.1 0% 0.2  
 - sugars (g) 0.1 0.2% 0.2  
Dietary fibre (g) 1.7 6% 2.5  
Sodium (mg) 4 0.2% 6  
Niacin (mg) 1.4 14% RDI* 2.0 A source of niacin
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.16 10% RDI* 0.24 A source of vitamin B6
Potassium (mg) 258   380 Contains potassium
Selenium (µg) 5.2 7% RDI* 7.7  
Riboflavin (mg) trace 0% RDI*  trace  

Percentage Daily Intakes are based on an average adult diet of 8700 kJ
Your daily Intakes may be higher or lower depending on your energy needs.
*Recommended Dietary Intake (Average Adult)

Source: The Concise New Zealand Food Composition Tables, 10th Edition, Plant & Food Research - 2014

MUSHROOM - PORTOBELLO
Raw
Nutrition Information
Serving size: 1 cup sliced - 78.75g
  Average
Quantity
per serving 
% Daily
intake per
serve 
Average
Quantity
per 100g 
 
Energy (kJ/Cal) 57/14 0.7% 72/17  
Protein (g) 1.7 3% 2.2  
Fat, total (g) 0.2 0.3% 0.3  
 - saturated (g) trace 0% trace  
Carbohydrate (g) 0.6 0.2% 0.7  
 - sugars (g) 0.5 0.5% 0.6  
Dietary fibre (g) 1.3 4% 1.6  
Sodium (mg) 2.8 0.1% 3.5  
Niacin (mg) 3.9 40% RDI* 5.0 A good source of niacin
Selenium (µg) 15.8 23% RDI* 20.0 A source of selenium
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.17 11% RDI* 0.22 A source of vitamin B6
Potassium (mg) 291   370 Contains Potassium

Percentage Daily Intakes are based on an average adult diet of 8700 kJ
Your daily Intakes may be higher or lower depending on your energy needs.
*Recommended Dietary Intake (Average Adult)

Source: The Concise New Zealand Food Composition Tables, 10th Edition, Plant & Food Research - 2014

Mushrooms are a source of niacin, selenium and vitamin B6.  They also contain potassium.

Retailing

Keep and display mushrooms in their original carton to avoid over-handling and bruising. Handle with extreme care as they are susceptible to damage. Where possible display under refrigeration. Provide paper bags for customers when selling loose mushrooms. Use the QR code on labels.

Store at 2-5°C with a relative humidity of 95%. Keep covered and away from refrigerator fans. The optimum storage temperature is 0°C, but because of the risk of the product freezing a slightly higher temperature is recommended. Mushrooms are ethylene sensitive so store separately from ethylene producing fruits and vegetables.

Purchase mushrooms with the New Zealand GAP logo.

Recipes

Spring vegetable soup
Spring vegetable soup

The vegetables in this soup are very lightly cooked and taste juicy and succulent. View Recipe

Vegetables and noodles
Vegetables and noodles

This delicious salad can also be made without beef. View Recipe

Hot and spicy red potato salad
Hot and spicy red potato salad

The aromatic flavours of the seeds, ginger and chilli spice up the red potatoes. View Recipe

View more Recipes

Images

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