Mushrooms

Mushrooms have been eaten in Europe, Russia, China and Japan for thousands of years.

There are over 250 edible mushroom varieties throughout the world. Only a few are commercially available in New Zealand.

Varieties

Button mushrooms

These are mushrooms that are harvested when still small and unopened. Once the mushrooms open to a stage where the gills are visible they are referred to as cups. White button mushrooms are the most commonly consumed mushrooms in New Zealand.

p mushrooms swissbrownsSwiss browns (brown buttons, gourmet browns)

These have a darker brown top than button or cap mushrooms, but similar looking gills. They are generally harvested when 3-5 cm in diameter. Swiss browns have a rich, nutty flavour and are used when a stronger flavour is required.

p mushrooms shiitakeShiitake mushrooms

These have a traditional mushroom shape with a dark brown cap, often with small speckles around the rim. Shiitake mushrooms have a distinctive fresh earthy flavour and aroma and are widely used in Asian cooking. When cooked, the shiitake mushrooms retain their shape, have a smooth texture and do not discolour. Shiitake mushrooms are versatile and may be used raw or in all cooking where flavour infusion takes place.

p mushrooms portabellosPortabellos (brown flats, flats)

These are Swiss brown mushrooms that have been allowed to grow larger. They are usually harvested when 8-10 cm in diameter, with well formed gills. They have a very rich and intense flavour, and as they are flat they are perfect for stuffing.

What to look for

With all mushrooms, the fresher the better. Look for mushrooms with good colour and avoid any which are damaged, bruised or with signs of deterioration. Where appropriate, gills should be fresh and upright.

Availability

All year.

Store

Remove from plastic packaging and refrigerate in a paper bag. Mushrooms continue to grow after harvesting and they will respire or ‘sweat’ in plastic bags. Brown paper bags will absorb moisture and keep mushrooms fresher.

How to prepare

Cultivated mushrooms don't need peeling – just wipe both the cap and stalk with a paper towel. Do not wash. Field mushrooms sometimes need peeling.

Ways to eat

Mushrooms are very versatile and will add flavour to many dishes. They can be used with meat, in soups, sauces, braises, stews, stir fries, omelettes, pies, salads and on pizzas. They can be microwaved, barbecued, stir fried, baked, grilled, fried or poached. Serve them raw with a dip or in salads.

Cooking methods

Button: bake, grill, stir fry.
Cups: bake, grill, stir fry, stuff.
Portobello: bake, braise, grill, roast, stir fry, stuff.

Nutrition

Mushrooms are a good source of biotin and pantothenic acid, a source of dietary fibre, niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, copper, phosphorus and selenium, and contain a dietary significant amount of potassium.

Portobello mushrooms are a good source of niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin and selenium; a source of vitamin B6, copper and phosphorus and contains potassium.

Nutrition table

MUSHROOMS Raw      
Nutrition Information        
Serving size: 1 cup sliced = 96g      
  Average Quantity % Daily Intake per serve Average Quantity  
per serving per 100g  
Energy (kJ/Cal) 67/16 1% 70/17  
Protein (g) 2.2 4% 2.3  
Fat, total (g) 0.2 0% 0.2  
 - saturated (g) 0.05 0% 0.05  
Available carbohydrate (g) 0.2 0% 0.2  
 - sugars (g) 0.2 0% 0.2  
Dietary Fibre (g) 2.4   2.5 A source of dietary fibre
Sodium (mg) 6 0% 6  
Biotin (mg) 10.5 35% ESADDI** 10.9 A good source of biotin
Pantothenic acid (mg) 1.5 30% ESADDI** 1.6 A good source of pantothenic acid
Niacin  (mg) 1.6 16% RDI* 1.7 A source of niacin
Riboflavin (mg) 0.25 15% RDI* 0.26 A source of riboflavin
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.23 14% RDI* 0.24 A source of vitamin B6
Copper (mg) 0.4 12% ESADDI** 0.4 A source of copper
Phosphorus (mg) 104 10% RDI* 108 A source of phosphorus
Potassium (mg) 368   383 Contains potassium
Selenium (µg) 7.4 11% RDI* 7.7 A source of selenium
Percentage Daily Intakes are based on an average adult diet of 8700 kJ 
Your daily Intakes may be higher or lower depending on your energy needs 
 *Recommended Dietary Intake (Average Adult)
**Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake
 
Source: FOODfiles 2018        
         
MUSHROOM, PORTOBELLO  Raw    
Nutrition Information        
Serving size: 1 cup sliced = 108g      
  Average Quantity % Daily Intake per serve Average Quantity  
  per serving per 100g  
Energy (kJ/Cal) 78/19 1% 72/17  
Protein (g) 2.3 5% 2.2  
Fat, total (g) 0.3 0% 0.3  
 - saturated (g) 0.03 0% 0.03  
Available carbohydrate (g) 0.8 0% 0.7  
 - sugars (g) 0.6 1% 0.6  
Dietary Fibre (g) 1.7   1.6  
Sodium (mg) 4 0% 4  
Niacin (mg) 5.4 54% RDI* 5.0 A good source of niacin 
Pantothenic acid (mg) 1.5 30% ESADDI** 1.4 A good source of pantothenic acid
Riboflavin (mg) 0.59 35% RDI* 0.6 A good source of riboflavin
Selenium (µg) 21.3 30% RDI* 19.7 A good source of selenium 
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.24 15% RDI* 0.22 A source vitamin B6
Copper (mg) 0.3 10% ESADDI** 0.3 A source of copper
Phosphorus (mg) 113 11% RDI* 108 A source of phosphorus
Potassium (mg) 400   370 Contains potassium 
Percentage Daily Intakes are based on an average adult diet of 8700 kJ 
Your daily Intakes may be higher or lower depending on your energy needs 
 *Recommended Dietary Intake (Average Adult)
**Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake
 
Source: FOODfiles 2018        

Retailing

Keep and display mushrooms in their original carton to avoid over-handling and bruising. Handle with extreme care as they are susceptible to damage. Where possible display under refrigeration. Provide paper bags for customers when selling loose mushrooms. Use the QR code on labels.

Store at 2-5°C with a relative humidity of 95%. Keep covered and away from refrigerator fans. The optimum storage temperature is 0°C, but because of the risk of the product freezing a slightly higher temperature is recommended. Mushrooms are ethylene sensitive so store separately from ethylene producing fruits and vegetables.

Purchase mushrooms with the New Zealand GAP logo.

Recipes

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Images

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